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7SL: RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 1
~300 nt, transcribed by RNAPIII.
The eukaryotic small cytoplasmic 7SL is an RNA component of the SRP (signal recognition particle), which associates with the ribosome and targets nascent proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum for secretion or membrane insertion ((Walter 1982)) ((Zwieb 2004)).
- 7SL RNA is required for structural and functional properties of SRP ((Walter 1982)), being a scaffold component upon which the six proteins of the SRP bind in higher eukaryotes. In mammals SRP consists of the SRP RNA the six proteins named SRP9, SRP14, SRP19, SRP54, SRP68, and SRP72 ((Walter 1983)).
- Bacterial SRP has a much reduced complexity, consisting of a small SRP RNA (4.5S RNA) and a homolog of protein SRP54, also called Ffh or P48 ((Bernstein 1993)). In archaea only two SRP proteins, SRP19 and SRP54, are thought to be part of the SRP, although SRP RNA closely resembles the mammalian homolog ((Bhuiyan 2000)).
- There is evidence that a highly conserved region of 7SL RNA catalyses the binding of SRP to its receptor SR, and that this RNA stimulates the GTPase activities of the SRP-SR complex ((Zhang 2008)) ((Siu 2006)) ((Peluso 2000)).
Ubiquitously expressed at high levels. Localises to the cytoplasm. An expression profile from 11 human tissues using RNA sequencing showed 7SL was most highly expressed ncRNA and could be an order of magnitude more highly expressed than any mRNA ((Castle 2010)).
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