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Approved symbol: NRON
Approved name: non-coding repressor of NFAT
HGNC ID: HGNC:37079
Previous names: non-protein coding RNA, repressor of NFAT
Alias symbols: NCRNA00194
Alias names: noncoding repressor of NFAT; non-protein coding RNA 194
RefSeq ID: NR_045006
LncBook ID: HSALNT0289382
noncoding repressor of NFAT (NRON). ~2.7 kb. Composed of three exons, which can be alternatively spliced to yield transcripts ranging in size from 0.8 to 3.7 kb, is a cytoplasmic lncRNA.
Identified in a shRNA knock down screening for conserved long noncoding RNAs that modulate the activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Knockdown of human or mouse NRON sequences in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells or mouse 3T3 and Jurkat cell lines resulted in significantly increased NFAT activity. Knockdown of NRON increases NFAT transcription factor activity by specifically affecting NFAT nuclear trafficking. This effect is observed on the activity of multiple NFAT family members (NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4). Using an RNA-protein affinity purification strategy with part of NRON sequence, 11 proteins were reported to putatively bind NRON. These included: calmodulin-binding protein (IQGAP1), a nuclear transport factor (KPNB1), the structural subunit of a phosphatase (PPP2R1A), a component of the proteasome (PSMD11) and an RNA helicase (DDX3X); as well as three members of the importin-beta superfamily, factors which mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of cargoes such as NFAT. Direct interaction was demonstrated with importin-beta 1 (KPNB1). In summary, having a repressive effect on NFAT signaling, NRON is proposed to regulate NFAT's subcellular localization as an RNA component of a protein complex that acts to represses NFAT activity. It has presumed implications in immune response and developmental processes regulated by NFAT.
NRON acts as a scaffold to maintain the structure of a ribonucleoprotein complex which can retain the transcription factor NFAT in the cytoplasm, meaning that NRON plays a significant role in the immune response.
Expressed in relatively low levels. Present in mouse embryos and enriched in cells derived from human and mouse placenta, muscle, and lymphoid tissues such as the spleen, thymus and lymph nodes, with differential expression of isoforms.
NRON expression level is much lower in CRSsNP patients compared to both the control group and CRSwNP group, Previously reported highly expressed in human immune cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.
NRON contains blocks of sequence which are highly conserved back to chicken. In particular, it contains two large regions of 300 to 400 bases regions of near-perfect sequence conservation between rodents and primates.
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Allelic Information and Variation
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Labs working on this lncRNA
- Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, 83 Fenyang Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200031 People's Republic of China.
- Shanghai Key Clinical Disciplines of Otorhinolaryngology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
- Ma Y, Zheng C and Shi L. The kinase LRRK2 is differently expressed in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps[J]. Clin Transl Allergy, 2018, 8: 8.