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~900bp in humans. Contains a 'human accelerated region' (HAR). Overlaps with an antisense noncoding RNA, HAR1A (Pollard (2006)). Two splice isoforms, one with 2 exons, one with 3 exons (Pollard (2006)). Conserved HAR1 sequence (common to both HAR1A and HAR1B) forms a secondary structure which is highly conserved (Pollard (2006)) but has undergone changes from a hairpin structure in chimps to a cloverleaf structure in humans (Beniaminov (2008)).
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Expression was found in adult brain, ovary and testis in human. Expression level was much lower than HAR1A (Pollard (2006)). Repressed transcriptionally by REST, which causes repression of HAR1B in striatum of Huntington's disease patients (Johnson (2010)). . The mouse locus is expressed during embryonic development (peak at E15) and in adults it is specifically expressed in the brain. Unlike in human, "HAR1B" was expressed at similar levels to "HAR1A" in mouse (Pollard (2006)).
Contains a 'human accelerated region', which is a sequence highly conserved in amniotes (negative selection) but which has evolved rapidly in the human lineage (positive selection) since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees from the last common ancestor (18 bases out of 118 are different between human and chimpanzee but only 2 differences between chimpanzee and chicken) (Pollard (2006)). Rest of HAR1B sequence has little conservation outside of chimp and macaque (Pollard (2006)). </tab>|
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Labs working on this lncRNA
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